To build a practical quantum computer, one that runs efficiently and as cheaply as possible, is the holy grail for researchers and experts in the space. At present, the general direction the industry seems to be taking in respect to the hardware architecture is in ion trap and superconducting circuit design.
But as technology improves, and more money is pumped into the industry, more approaches will become popular, for sure (though there are already others).
One almighty obstacle in the way is trying to control the complex quantum system—from mechanical vibrations to the external energy that ruins the qubits’ states.
Then there’s the process of all the assembling, all the wiring, all the calibrating, all the reassembling, and all the fixing any problems — even before the quantum system can be measured within the cryogenic refrigeration equipment — is a headache I’m glad I don’t have to think about.
Yet, for all these problems the quantum computing (QC) industry is facing, there are a number of companies specifically focused on building cryogenic products with specific quantum applications — here they are from 1 to 9:
1.Oxford Instruments NanoScience (UK)
First on our list is Oxford Instruments. This venerable company was founded in 1959 as the first commercial spin-out from Oxford University. Its low-temperature system products include the modular Cryofree® Proteox family of dilution refrigerators, high-field magnets and cryostats.
A leading provider of high technology tools and systems for research and industry
— Oxford Instruments
A spin-off from the University of Colorado Boulder, ColdQuanta offers cryogenic ion trap housing among a host of other products. The company was founded in 2007.
Powering the Quantum Information Age
3.Delft Circuits (the Netherlands)
Established in 2016, Delft Circuits — from Delft in the Netherlands — is bringing its Cri/oFlex® technology to the quantum computing community. One to watch out for in the coming years.
Hardware for quantum engineers
— Delft Circuits
The Technical University of Munich’s (TUM) spinoff Kiutra is in the midst of developing next-generation cooling devices for basic research, quantum technology and detector applications based on magnetic cooling, rather than costly liquified gases (cryogens). Another that shows — through its IP — great potential. The startup was founded in 2018.
We develop next-generation cooling devices for basic research, quantum technology, and detector applications based on magnetic cooling
5. Low Noise Factory (Sweden)
Founded in 2005, Low Noise Factory is a quantum computing initiative out of Gothenburg, Sweden, hard at work creating its state-of-the-art cryogenic low noise amplifiers.
State-of-the-art room temperature and cryogenic low noise amplifiers
— Low Noise Factory
6.Quantum Microwave (US)
Similar to Low Noise Factory, US-based Quantum Microwave manufactures its own cryogenic low noise amplifiers, though with the added benefit of building isolators and circulators, too. The company’s headquarters are in Hingham, Massachusetts. It was founded in 2016.
7.Montana Instruments (US)
Montana Instruments, founded in Bozeman, Montana, in 2008, is a cryogenic company focused on quantum materials research and technology development.
Your cryogenic partners in quantum materials research and technology development
— Montana Instruments
One doing more than its fair share of the graft in this sector is Bluefors, founded in Helsinki, Finland, in 2008 by Rob Blaauwgeers and Pieter Vorselman, since then, the company has gone from strength to strength in the cryogen-free ultra-low temperature systems industry, which — TQD is unbiased about — is certain to grow as the number of startups, bigger entities, multinationals, and government-sponsored organizations come to the market with their unique superconducting QC solutions.
We are dedicated to build easy to operate one push button cool-down cryogen-free dilution refrigerator measurement systems suited to the needs of each particular customer. Our dedication and expertise will make sure that each final product is trouble free with a guaranteed long lifetime.
Until then, however, we have a handful of companies above to provide the QC community with all their cryogenic needs.
Or did I forget one? I believe I did.
9.Lake Shore Cryotronics (US)
Lake Shore Cryotronics, at least since acquiring Janis Research in early in 2020, has become a dominant player in the cryogenic market serving the QC space because of Janis Research’s outstanding IP legacy.
On the acquisition, Lake Shore Cryotronics’ president and CEO Michael Swartz had this to say:
“Janis is an ideal fit for Lake Shore. They’re highly knowledgeable about the needs of scientists and others working in low-temperature physics and early-stage materials research, and together, we can offer a more complete portfolio of product solutions. We are impressed with the design to customer requirement capabilities of Janis Research.”
Starting life in the sleepy town of Woburn, Massachusetts, in 1961 by founder William Shields as a company intent on commercializing liquid helium transfer lines, Janis Research came a long way from the early 1960s to building unique cryogenic QC applications like LabVIEW™.
And that was probably one of the reasons Lake Shore Cryotronics acquired them.
Lake Shore Cryotronics, to its benefit, was a company with a storied history before it purchased Janis Research, though.
Founded in 1968, Lake Shore Cryotronics is located in Westerville, Ohio, the company is ‘a leading innovator in measurement and control solutions for materials characterization under extreme temperature and magnetic field conditions’…
With a global reach of customers coming from universities, governments and other areas, Lake Short Cryotronics’s high-performance solutions via its cryogenic temperature sensors and instrumentation, magnetic test and measurement instruments, probe stations, and precision materials product line will surely put the company in high demand in the future. And to add, the acquisition of Janis Research gives it a foothold in quantum tech.
Supporting Breakthrough Science — Yours
— Lake Shore Cryotronics
Time To Pivot?
There are also dozens of companies that specialize in either manufacturing cryogenic equipment, repairing it or other services— though currently with no clear focus on quantum computing/quantum information technology applications. However, as quantum information science (QIS) grows, and investors and other experts see the ongoing potential, it could be a case that many companies start to realize pivoting their services and products to directly support quantum tech — no matter how small — could have far-reaching consequences for them and the wider industry in the future.
It seems to be more a matter of when not if. And because of this, TQD has spent some time detailing a long list of those that could — through their already existing IP and technological innovations — offer QC and QIS a great deal if they ever choose to:
10.Abbess Instruments (US)
Founded in 1986, Abbess Instruments and Systems is a company that builds vacuum chamber cryogenic/refrigeration features for thermal cycling/testing or static set point control for biostorage. Abbess Instruments’ headquarters are in Holliston, Massachusetts.
11.Ability Engineering Technology (US)
Founded in 1947 and located in South Holland, Illinois, Ability Engineering Technology manufactures cryogenic and non-cryogenic applications throughout the liquid-gas supply chain for the extraction, purification, liquefaction, distribution, storage and end-use of gases and hydrocarbons.
12.ACME Cryogenics (US)
With headquarters in Allentown, Pennsylvania, ACME Cryogenics was founded in 1969 and produces CVI cryogenic valves, specialty gas equipment, fabrication services, helium and hydrogen tank rehab, CGA fittings, and vaporizers.
13.Ad-Vance Magnetics (US)
Ad-Vance Magnetics builds cryogenic and room temperature applications. It is located in Rochester, Indiana, and founded in 1971.
14.Advanced Research Systems (US)
Advanced Research Systems is located in Macungie, Pennsylvania and was founded in 1986. Specializing in closed-cycle cryostats with a temperature range of 1.5K–350K, and low vibrations between 3–5nm.
15.Aerospace Fabrication & Materials (AFM) (US)
Formed in 1999, Aerospace Fabrication & Materials Custom builds multilayer insulation cryogenic applications (MLI) for spacecraft and launch vehicles. AFM’s headquarters are in Farmington, Minnesota.
16.Fabrum Solutions (New Zealand)
Fabrum Solutions was founded in 2004 in Christchurch, New Zealand. It manufactures and delivers membrane cryocooler technology with components that include superconducting transformers, magnets and cryostats, and composites for cryogenic containment and cooling systems in power systems.
17.Air Liquide (France)
Air Liquide designs and manufactures products for cryogenic fluid storage and transportation. Founded in 1904, Air Liquide’s headquarters are in Paris, France.
18.American Magnetics (US)
From Oak Ridge, Tennessee, American Magnetics builds turn-key cryogen-free and liquid helium based superconducting magnet systems. The company was founded in 1968.
19.Amuneal Manufacturing (US)
Amuneal Manufacturing was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1965 and makes magnetic shielding for cryogenic and room temperature applications, with core competencies in low-frequency magnetics, precision sheet metal fabrication and specialized hydrogen annealing.
Located in Arvada, Colorado, a suburb of Denver, Barber-Nichols was founded in 1966 and manufactures vacuum jacketed, extended shaft pumps, circulators, blowers, and compressors for use in cryogenic systems to optimize system performance.
21.Brugg Pipes (Switzerland)
Brugg Pipes produces helical corrugated flexible pipes for cryogenic applications, cryogenic flexible vacuum insulated pipes for all cryogenic gases. It was founded in Aargau, Switzerland, in 1991.
Circor was founded in Burlington, Massachusetts, in 1999, and provides ultracold liquid hydrogen and liquid helium products with operating temperatures to 4 Kelvin. Products include cryogenic valves, vacuum insulated products, cryogenic filters, bayonet connections and complex vacuum insulated piping and manifold systems.
ColdEdge manufactures custom cryogenic systems while collaborating with partners to design the best cryocooler solutions. The company was founded in 2008, in Allentown, Pennsylvania.
With headquarters in Hanover, New Hampshire, Creare provides cryogenic services from conceptual design, analysis, and optimization to hardware fabrication and testing. Expertise includes custom cryogenic components and systems, vacuum systems, heat exchangers, turbo-Brayton and other cryocoolers. Creare was founded in 1961.
Founded in Galați, Romania, in 1994, Criomec deals in integrated solutions for complex industrial projects for cryogenics and other sectors. Services include design, execution and assembly, commissioning and maintenance of industrial and technological installations.
26.Criotegc Impianti (Italy)
Criotegc Impianti designs and manufactures transfer lines, valve boxes, cryostats and custom environmental test chambers for extremely low temperatures (to 10 K). Criotec Impianti was founded in Turin, Italy, in 1989.
27.Cryo Industries of America (US)
Established in 1984, Cryo Industries of America has a diverse line of cryogenic systems including helium liquefiers, open or closed-cycle systems, superconducting magnet systems, continuous flow or reservoir type. Cryo Industries specializes in custom systems. The company’s headquarters are located in Manchester, New Hampshire.
28. Applied Cryogenic Technologies (US)
Applied Cryogenic Technologies specializes in the design and manufacturing of specialty cryogenic equipment, including cryogenic trailers and mobile storage equipment. With headquarters in Houston, Texas, the company was founded in 2012.
CryoCoax, a division of the Intelliconnect group, designs and manufactures cryogenic interconnect products that operate to 2 K, including unique custom designs. The company is based in Chelmsford, UK.
Cryocomp makes vacuum-jacketed cryogenic valves, vacuum seal-off valves and vacuum valve operators. Founded in 1994, its headquarters are located in Kenilworth, New Jersey.
Established in 1969 and based in Stoke-on-Trent, UK Cryoconnect designs and manufactures wiring solutions for LT and ULT cryogenic systems.
Cryofab, founded in 1971, manufactures and services cryogenic equipment and accessories for all liquid cryogens, fabrications, OEM fabrications, and a full line of standard containers, vessels, VJ valves and accessories. Like Cryocomp, it’s based in Kenilworth, New Jersey.
33.Cryogenic Control Systems (US)
Cryogenic Control Systems is a producer of precision electronic instrumentation for both laboratory and industrial process control applications with an extensive line of cryogenic temperature controllers, monitors, temperature sensors and cryogenic accessories based in Rancho Santa Fe, California.
34.Cryogenic Limited (UK)
With headquarters in London, Cryogenic Limited is a supplier of high-field superconducting magnets and low-temperature measurement systems (down to 10 mK), cryo-free superconducting magnet systems, SQUID magnetometers, custom beamline, UHV, and neutron-scatters. The company was founded in 1991.
35.Cryogenic Machinery Corporation (US)
Based in North Hollywood, California — the home of the stars — Cryogenic Machinery Corporation, founded in 1969, designs and manufactures cryogenic centrifugal pumps, seals, custom control panels and other auxiliary equipment for the liquefied gas industry.
Like American Magnetics, Cryomagnetics is located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Founded in 1983, it is a pioneer of cryogen-free superconducting magnet systems and today manufactures superconducting magnets and other cryogenic accessories.
Cryomech provides advanced cryocooler solutions, with products that include more than thirty different types of Gifford-McMahon and pulse tube cycle cryorefrigerators. The company was founded in 1963 and is based in Syracuse, New York.
Cryonova is located in Tusla, Oklahoma. Founded in 2009, it manufactures and services helium compression systems, helium refrigerators, helium liquefiers, and helium purifiers, as well as providing parts, service and consultation to helium cryogenic operations.
A cryogenic parts and service company focused on providing a high-value alternative for re-manufactured parts and innovative service solutions, CyroSRV was founded in 2014 with headquarters in Schaumburg, Illinois.
Founded in 1975, in Troisdorf, Germany, Cryovac manufactures fully customizable wet or dry systems in the temperature range of 300 mK to 800 K, including superconducting magnets.
41.Cryoworld BV (the Netherlands)
Cryoworld specializes in the design and production of cryogenic equipment including design, production, testing and installation of helium and other custom equipment of new cryogenic technologies. The company was established in 2012, in Wieringerwerf, the Netherlands.
42.CSIC Pride Cryogenic Technology (China)
Founded in 2010, CSIC Pride Cryogenic Technology manufactures cryocoolers and cryogenic engineering application devices, including GM cryocoolers, cryostats, helium reliquefiers, gas recovery, purification and liquefaction systems. Its headquarters are in Nanjing, China.
43.High Precision Devices (now FormFactor) (US)
Founded in 1993 and based in Boulder, Colorado, HPD (now FormFactor) builds cryogen-free cryostats and probe stations, configurable to address a wide range of ultralow temperature needs. The company’s technologies include ADR cryostats, low-vibration probe stations, scanning SQUID microscopy and wafer-scale probing.
Hypres is a superconducting electronics company offering design development, fabrication, testing and packaging in a commercial production environment. It offers high-performance, high-sensitivity digital superconductor integrated circuits and hybrid systems. Founded in 1982, Hypres’ headquarters are located in Elmsford, New York.
45.Kelvin International Corporation (US)
With headquarters in Newport News, Virginia, Kelvin International Corporation manufactures high-pressure nitrogen (HPN2) service trailers, cryogenic level sensors, helium heaters, and cryogen transfer control systems for the military and semiconductor industries, and for OEM applications. It was founded in 1993.
46.LIHAN Cryogenics (China)
LIHAN Cryogenics builds pulse tube cryocooler for superconductor device cooling, atmospheric pollution detection, nuclear instrumentation cooling and gas liquefaction systems. It is based in Shenzhen, China, and was founded in 2007.
47.Magnus Precision Manufacturing (US)
Specializing in manufacturing precise and tightly tolerant, cost-efficient cryogenic, optics and photonics components for various industries Magnus Precision Manufacturing was founded in 1988 and is based in Phelps, New York.
48.Meyer Tool & Mfg (US)
Founded in 1969, Meyer Tool & Mfg, manufactures custom fabrication of ASME code pressure vessels, UHV vacuum chambers and cryogenic systems. The company has headquarters in Oak Lawn, Illinois.
Founded in 2000, Nexans is a multinational company that manufactures CRYOFLEX® flexible vacuum-insulated transfer lines, transfer line systems and accessories for cryogenic fluids. Its headquarters are in Paris, France.
Niowave was founded in 2005 by a former National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory researcher and manufactures and tests superconducting electron linear accelerators, superconducting electron guns and injectors, accelerating cavities and components, as well as niobium and niobium alloys. Niowave is based in Lansing, Michigan.
51.PHPK Technologies (US)
PHPK is a major supplier of cryogenic and high vacuum equipment. As well as this, the company builds a complete line of cryogenic components, vacuum jacketed piping, and the CVI Torr Master® Cryopump product line provides you with unmatched capabilities. Founded in 1991, PHPK’s headquarters are in Lewis Center, Ohio.
52.QuinStar Technology (US)
Founded in Torrance, California, in 1993, QuinStar Technology high-quality, high-performance cryogenic components, including cryogenic isolators, circulators, arrays and amplifiers that deliver exceptional broadband performance down to the mK range.
53.RIX Industries (US)
RIX Industries manufactures thermoacoustic Stirling cryocoolers with up to 1,000 watts of cooling power at 77K. A very old company, RIX Industries was founded way back in 1878 and has headquarters in Benicia, California.
54.Sierra Lobo (US)
Established in 1993, Sierra Lobo manufactures cryogenic storage, thermal insulation systems, thermoacoustic cryocoolers, cryogenic instrumentation, and electronics, mainly for the space industry. It is based in Fremont, Ohio.
55.STAR Cryoelectronics (US)
Founded in 1999 in Santa Fe, New Mexico, STAR Cryoelectronics is a leading worldwide supplier of SQUID sensors and related readout electronics, cryogenic systems, and offers foundry services for superconducting thin-film device fabrication.
56.Stirling Cryogenics (the Netherlands)
Stirling Cryogenics specializes in stand-alone cooling systems, liquid nitrogen plants, cryogenerators, cryogenic fans and pumps and closed-loop cooling systems. It was founded in 2000 and has its headquarters in Son, the Netherlands.
57. SHI Cryogenics Group (Japan)
The company, founded in 2002, manufactures innovative 4K and 10K cryocooler designs, pulse tubes, cryopumps, helium compressors and shield coolers. It is based in Tokyo, Japan.
Sunpower’s CryoTel® cryocoolers are high efficiency and energy density Stirling cryocoolers for telecommunications, aerospace, gas liquefaction, biotechnology, and superconductivity. Founded in 1974, Sunpower has its headquarters in Athens, Ohio.
59.The Phoenix Company of Chicago (US)
The Phoenix Company was founded in 1969 and is a global supplier of RF/microwave connector and cable assembly products serving aerospace, quantum computing, medical, military, cold temperature, and test/instrumentation markets. Company headquarters are in Naugatuck, Connecticut.
60.Thermal Space Ltd (US)
Thermal Space designs and manufactures refrigerant and cryogenic cold plates that have been used by NASA, the US military, government, and academic laboratories. The company was founded in 2015 and is based in Boulder, Colorado.
61.Universal Cryogenics (US)
Founded in 2004, Universal Cryogenics engineers and manufactures custom infrared cryogenic cooling platforms used in research and commercial applications, with systems that provide precision temperature control for temperatures as low as 4 K. Company headquarters are located in Tucson, Arizona.
Have we missed any out or got something wrong? If so, don’t hesitate to contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Quantum Insider (TQI)
Just in case this list hasn’t satisfied your cravings for data in the cryogenics industry, you can pop on over to The Quantum Insider (TQI), TQD’s very own data platform, where you can find deep and insightful data on all aspects of the QIS industry.
TQI is an invaluable resource for journalists, researchers, investors, companies, and government agencies looking to extend their knowledge of the growing quantum tech ecosystem!